In an increasingly digitized and interconnected world, network-based modeling paradigms provide an analytical lens to understand the complex ecosystem of interactions throughout the life cycle of information flow, from how we share information to how we perform computations, collaborate, and make inference. My research focuses on a foundational understanding of networked systems, with an emphasis on uncovering fundamental properties, improving resilience, and providing formal performance guarantees. To this end, I work with an interdisciplinary toolkit spanning stochastic modeling, network science, optimization, and data science. Key application areas include enabling reliable communication and computations in decentralized systems and countering misinformation and extreme polarization in social networks.